How Do Non-Turkish Students Whose Native Language is Urdu and the Second Language is English Transfer Their L1 and L2 to Their L3 (Turkish)?

Kubra Saygili, Tugce Kose


The purpose of this study is to examine how, if at all, non-Turkish students whose native language is Urdu and the second language is English transfer their L1 and L2 to their L3 (Turkish). It also explored the particular structures that those students might transfer both consciously and unconsciously in the L3 learning process. This study is conducted with 30 students whose nationality is Pakistani. These students native language is Urdu and the second language is English. The study is designed as a qualitative and quantitative method. The data is collected through percentages by rubrics and the content analysis by means of a questionnaire. In the light of the data analysis, the result and the analysis of the rubrics and questionnaires, we explored how students transfer their L1 and L2 knowledge to their L3. We also indicated that transferable particular structures are analyzed with the help of examples and students errors.


L1 (First Language), L2 (Second Language), L3 (Third Language), Transferability

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