Congratulation Strategies in Syrians' Wedding Parties in Jordan

Mahmud Wardat, Omar Mohammad Alkhateeb


The study aimed at examining the politeness strategies used in the Syrians' wedding parties. The sample consisted of 72 respondents from the Syrian refugees dwelling in north Jordan. Half of the sample were males, and the other half females. A questionnaire which consisted of fourteen questions was distributed to the sample. The results showed that Syrians use exaggeration in their strategies of congratulations, and they like to express their happiness to the two brides. Results also showed that Syrians avoid asking about private issues, and avoid joking in their wedding parties. Finally, the results showed no difference between males and females in using politeness strategies in Syrians' wedding parties.


Syrians' wedding parties, politeness strategies, the brides

Full Text:



Al-Ali, Mohammad N. (2006). Religious and Masculine Power in Jordanian Wedding Invitation Genre. Discourse and Society, 17 (6), 691-714.

Allami, Hamid and Nekuuzadeh, Maryam. (2011). Congratulation and Positive Politeness Strategies in Iranian Context. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 1 (11), 1607- 1613.

Al-Shboul, Yasser and Huwari, Ibrahim. (2016). Congratulation Strategies of Jordanian EFL Postgraduate Students. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 6 (1), 79- 87.

Al-Zubaidi, Nassier A. G. (2017). Wedding Invitation Genre: Communicating Sociocultural Identities of Iraqi Society. Lublin Studies in Modern Languages and Literature, 41 (1), 129-155.

Austin, J.L. (1962). How to Do Things with Words. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Berry, J. W. et al. (2002). Cross-Cultural Psychology: Research and Applications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Blum-Kulka, S., House, J. and Kasper, G. (Eds.). (1989). Cross-Cultural Pragmatics: Requests and Apologies. Norwood, N.J.: Albex.

Brown, P. and Levinson, S. (1987). Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Buckley, Erika. (2006).A Cross-Cultural Study of Weddings through Media and Ritual: Analyzing Indian and North American Weddings. McNair Scholars Journal, 10 (1), 13 - 28.

Can, H. (2011). Turkce Tebrikler. In C. Sagin-Simsek and C. Hatipoglu. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 24th National Linguistics Conference. (pp: 121-131). Ankara: METU Press.

Elwood, K. (2004).Congratulations!: A cross-cultural analysis of responses to another’s happy news. The Cultural Review, Waseda Commercial Studies Association, (25), 355-386.

Emery, P. G. (2000). Greeting, Congratulating and Commiserating in Omani Arabic. Language, Culture and Literature, 13 (2), 196-217.

Enab,Baladi. (Oct.2018). Retrieved April 3, 2019, from

Dastjerdi, Hossein V. and Nasri, Najmeh. (2012). Congratulation Speech Acts Across Cultures: The Case of English, Persian, and Arabic. Journal of Language, Culture, and Translation, 1 (2), 97-116.

Dunak, K. (2009). Ceremony and Citizenship: African- American Wedding, 1945-60. Gender and History, 21 (2), 402-424.

Garcia, C. (2009). Congratulations and Rapport Management: A Case Study of Peruvian Spanish Speakers. Pragmatic, 19 (2), 197-222.

Gebrael, Paul. (2006). Understanding the Significant Symbols of Lebanese-Canadian Maronite Wedding Ceremonies. Unpublished Masteral Thesis, The University of Windsor, Canada.

Ghaemi, FaridandEbrahimi, Fatemeh. (2014). Speech Act of Congratulation among Persian Speakers. ELT Voices-International Journal for Teachers of English, 4 (6), 98-112.

Hofstede, G. (1991/1994).Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. London: HarperCollinsBusiness.

Holms, J. (2001).An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. Edinburgh Gate, England: Pearson Educational Ltd.

Joseph, Juliet and Alexander, Katie. (2018). Personalizing the Wedding: A Cross-Cultural Study of Wedding Motivations in the Keralite- Indian and Southern American Communities. Unpublished Doctoral Thesis, South Carolina Honors College.

Leech, G. (1983). Principles of Politeness. London: Longman.

Lozada, E. (2008). Framing Globalization: Wedding Pictures, Funeral Photography, and Family Snapshots in Rural China. Visual Anthropology, 19 (1), 87-103.

Makri-Tsilipakou, M. (2001). Congratulations and Bravo!. In A. Bayraktaroglu and M. Sifianou, (Eds.).Linguistic Politeness across Boundaries: The Case of Greek and Turkish (pp.: 137-176). Athens: John Benjamin Publishing Company.

Marzouk, Zeinab. (2017). Syrian Refugee Ties in Tunisia. UNHCR, The UN Refugee Agency.

Mehdipour,Samaneh, Eslami R. Zohreh, and Allami Hamid. (2015).A Comparative Sociopragmatic Analysis of Wedding Invitations in American and Iranian Societies and Teaching Implications. Applied Research on English Language, 4 (2), 62-77.

Muhanna, Nadia. (2009). The Big Day (Wedding Customs in Syria). Nadia’s Muhanna’s Blog. Syrian Today Magazine.

Murata, K. (1998). Has He Apologized or Not?A Cross-Cultural Misunderstanding between the UK and Japan on the Occasion of the 50th Anniversary of VJ Day in Britain. Pragmatics, 8, 501- 513.

Nhlekisana, R. (2007). Honey, Let’s Waltz the Day Out: The Effects of Popular Music on Wedding Celebrations in Botswana. Music Journal of Music Research in Africa, 4 (1), 87-103.

Parkes, M. C. (1988). Bereavement as a Psychological Transition: Processes of Adaptation to Change. Journal of Social Issues, 44 (3), 53-65.

Pishghadam, Reza and Moghaddam, Morady Mostafa. (2011). Towards a Contrastive Pragmatic Analysis of Congratulation Speech Act in Persian and English. The Journal of Applied Linguistics, 4 (2), 130 – 151.

Pollock, G. (1989). On Migration: Voluntary and Coerced. Annals of Psychoanalysis, 17, 145-158.

Sawalmeh, Mohammed. (2014). A Sociolinguistic Study of Muslim and Christian Wedding Invitation Genre in the Jordanian Society. Journal of Advances in Linguistics,5 (1), 448 – 462.

Searle, J. (1969). Speech Acts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Searle, J. (1975). Indirect Speech Acts. In P. Cole and J.L. Morgan . (Eds.). Syntax and Semantics: Speech Acts (Vol. 3, pp.: 59-82). N. Y., San Francisco, London: Academic Press.

Searle, J. (1976). Classification of Illocutionary Acts. Language and Society, 5, 1-23.

Searle, J. and Vanderveken, D. (1985).Foundations of Illocutionary Logic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sullivan, Emily. (2018). “ Today’s Changing Culture: Modern vs. Traditional Weddings”. Special Events. Retrieved March 10, 2019, from special weddings/

Wierzbicka, A. (1987). English Speech Act Verbs: A Semantic Dictionary. Sydney: Academic Press.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research