Written Direct and Indirect Comprehensive Feedback’s ‎Influence on Kuwaiti Undergraduate University Students’ ‎Writing Accuracy

Ahmed Samir Abdulghaffar Elsayed


This study explored the influence of instructor’s written direct/ indirect comprehensive corrective feedback on intermediate Kuwaiti university students’ writing accuracy. It also examined the subjects’ opinions regarding the impact of the provided types of feedback on their motivation. In order to reach this end, a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods were implemented. The informants of the current study were 134 intermediate undergraduate Kuwaiti university students. The participants were randomly divided into five groups. These five groups involved a control group and four treatment groups. The control group did not receive any type of feedback. The treatment groups received different types of treatment.  The participants of the first treatment group received direct feedback. The participants of the other three treatment groups received different types of indirect feedback, underlining only, underlining in addition to metalinguistic comments and underlining in addition to face to face conference. All the participants had to generate 7 writing tasks in nine weeks. After submitting each writing task, the treatment was provided then each participant had to generate a new draft of the same writing. In week nine the participants had to generate a new piece of writing. The Findings of the current study highlighted the importance of direct written comprehensive corrective feedback in improving the writing accuracy in revision tasks. In addition, a significant short- and long-term effects of direct written comprehensive on improving the grammatical accuracy of the participants of the current study were found. Furthermore, the participants of the current study have reported their dire need to receive written direct comprehensive feedback as they believed it was the most effective type of feedback and it had a great impact on their motivation.


direct, indirect, written comprehensive, corrective feedback

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