The Impact of Narrow Reading on Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners’ Lexical Depth

Mahdi Azizzadeh, Davood Taghipour Bazargani

Abstract


The present study aimed at investigating the effect of narrow reading on the lexical depth of Iranian EFL learners at intermediate level at Shokuh Language Institute in Talesh, Iran. To achieve the goal, Oxford Quick Placement Test was administered to 38 EFL learners. Those who performed between one standard deviation above and one below the mean on the test (N = 32) were divided into two classes of control group (N = 16) and experimental group (N = 16). The participants in the experimental group were provided with narrow reading instruction for 24 sessions while the control group underwent a traditional instruction of reading during the same time. The pre-tests and post-tests of word association task (WAT) were administered and t-tests were used to compare means of test scores between the control and experimental groups' pre-tests and post-tests and within the experimental group's pre-tests and post-tests scores. The results revealed that while the two groups were homogeneous in terms of their lexical depth before the treatment, the experimental group outperformed the control group on the post-test. That is, teaching reading through narrow reading is a significantly effective method to improve EFL learners' lexical depth. At the qualitative stage, data from interview with the participants of the experimental group were used to shed light on the gathered data through exploring the participants' attitude towards the narrow reading. The findings can be practically used by teachers and syllabus designers to work on narrow reading and lexical depth.


Keywords


lexical depth, narrow reading, vocabulary knowledge, word association task

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abdollahi, M., & Farvardin, M. T. (2016). Demystifying the effect of narrow reading on EFL learners’ vocabulary recall and retention. Education Research International, 1-10.

Akbarian, I. (2010). The relationship between vocabulary size and depth for ESP/EAP learners. System, 38(3), 391-401. doi:10.1016/j.system.2010.06.013

Alhamami, M. (2016). Vocabulary learning through audios, images, and videos: Linking technologies with memory. CALL-EJ, 17(2), 87-112.

Al-Isa, A. (2006). Schema theory and L2 reading comprehension: Implications for teaching English language teaching. Canadian Center of Science and Education, 5(11).

Ballance, O. J. (2021). Narrow reading, vocabulary load and collocations in context: Exploring lexical repetition in concordances from a pedagogical perspective. ReCALL, 33(1), 4-17.

Bernardo, I. G. (2017). The implications of narrow reading for second language vocabulary acquisition (Doctoral dissertation, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid).

Bryan, S. (2011). Extensive reading, narrow reading and second language learners: implications for libraries. The Australian Library Journal, 60(2), 113-122.

Chang, A. C. (2019). Effects of narrow reading and listening on L2 vocabulary learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 1-26. doi:10.1017/s0272263119000032.

Chang, A. C., & Millett, S. (2017). Narrow reading: Effects on EFL learners’ reading speed, comprehension, and perceptions. Reading a Foreign Language, 29(1), 1-19.

Chang, A. C., & Renandya, W. A. (2019). The effect of narrow reading on L2 learners’ vocabulary acquisition. RELC Journal, 52(3), 493-508.

Chang, A. C., & Renandya, W. A. (2020). The effect of narrow reading on L2 learners’ perceptions. RELC journal, 51(2), 244-258.

Chapelle, C. (1994). Are C-tests valid measures for L2 vocabulary research? Second Language Research, 10,157-187.

Cho, K. S., Ahn, K. O., & Krashen, S. (2005). The effects of narrow reading of authentic texts on interest and reading ability in English as a foreign language. Reading Improvement, 42(1), 58-64.

Dabbagh, A., & Janebi Enayat, M. (2019). The role of vocabulary breadth and depth in predicting second language descriptive writing performance. The Language Learning Journal, 47(5), 575-590.

Doczi, B. & Kormos, J. (2016). Longitudinal developments in vocabulary knowledge and lexical organization. New York: Oxford University Press

Gardner, D. (2004). Vocabulary input through extensive reading: A comparison of words found in children’s narrative and expository reading materials. Applied Linguistics, 25, 1-37.

Hadaway, N. L. & Young, T. A. (2010). Matching books & readers: Helping English learners in grades K-6. New York: The Guilford Press.

Hansen, L. E., & Collins, P. (2015). Revisiting the case for narrow reading with English language learners. The Reading Matrix: An International Online Journal, 15(2), 137-155.

Hanuvong, B., & Sukavatee, P. (2021). The effects of learning conditioned narrow reading instruction on vocabulary knowledge of English as foreign language (EFL) learners. An Online Journal of Education, 16(2), OJED1602015-15.

Hasan, M. K., & Shabdin, A. A. (2017). Engineering EFL learners’ vocabulary depth knowledge and its relationship and prediction to academic reading comprehension. Asia Pacific Journal of Academic Research in Social Sciences, 2, 14-21.

Hatami, S. & Tavakoli, M. (2012). The role of depth versus breadth of vocabulary knowledge in success and ease in L2 lexical inferencing. TESL Canada Journal, 30(1), 1-21.

Kang, E. Y. (2015). Promoting L2 vocabulary learning through narrow reading. RELC Journal, 46, 165-179.

Khamesipour, M. (2015). The effects of explicit and implicit instruction of vocabulary through reading on EFL learners' vocabulary development. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 5(8), 1620-1627.

Krashen, S. (1981). Second language acquisition and second language learning. Pergamon.

Krashen, S. (1996). The case for narrow listening. System, 24(1), 97-100

Krashen, S. (2004) The case for narrow reading. Language Magazine 3(5), 17-19.

Lee, M.-L. (1996). The effects of narrow reading on EFL Learners’ comprehension of expository texts. Texas at Austin.

Min, H.-T. (2008). EFL vocabulary acquisition and retention: reading plus vocabulary enhancement activities and narrow reading. Language Learning, 58(1), 73-115. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9922.2007.00435.x

Mohammadi, S. M., & Afshar, N. B. (2016). Vocabulary knowledge learning and reading comprehension performance: Which one is superior-breadth or depth? International Journal for 21st Century Education, 3(2), 5-14

Naguib, S. (2020). Promoting oral fluency of general diploma students through oral reading to self and narrow reading. Journal of Scientific Research in Education, 21(10), 645-665.

Nagy, W., & Herman, P. (1987). Breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge: implications for acquisition and instruction. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Nassaji (2004). The relationship between depth of vocabulary knowledge and L2 learners’ lexical inferencing strategy use and success. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 61(1), 107-134.

Nation, I. S. P. (1990). Teaching and learning vocabulary. New York: Newbury House.

Paya-Guerrero, M., & Segura, M. L. E. (2015). EFL vocabulary acquisition: Narrow reading versus reading plus vocabulary-enhancement activities. A case study with Spanish secondary school students. Porta Linguarum: revista internacional de didáctica de las lenguas extranjeras, (24), 93-105.

Qian, D. D. (1998). Depth of vocabulary knowledge: Assessing its role in adult's reading comprehension in English as a second language. Doctoral dissertation, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Qian, D. D. (1999). Assessing the roles of depth and breadth of vocabulary knowledge in reading comprehension. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 56, 282-308.

Qian, D. D., & Schedl, M. (2004). Evaluation of an in-depth vocabulary knowledge measure for assessing reading performance. Language Testing, 21(1), 28-52.doi:10.1191/0265532204lt273oa

Raisa-nguan, S., & Sukying, A. (2019). EFL students’ reading ability through narrow reading: Matters of vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension (Doctoral dissertation, Mahasarakham University).

Read, J. (1993). The development of a new measure of L2 vocabulary knowledge. Language Testing, 10, 355-371.

Read, J. (1994). Refining the word associates format as a measure of depth of vocabulary knowledge. Paper presented at the 19th Annual Congress of the Applied Linguistics Association of Australia, Melbourne.

Read, J. (1998). Validating a test to measure depth of vocabulary knowledge. In A. J. Kunnan (Ed.), Validation in Language Assessment (pp. 41-60). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Read, J. (2004). Plumbing the depths: How should the construct of vocabulary knowledge be defined? In P. Bogaards, & B. Laufer (Eds.), Vocabulary in a second language (pp. 209-227). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Redmer, G. (2019). Using narrow reading to develop fluency. English Teachers Forum, 30-32.

Richards, J. C., & Rodgers, T. C. (2001). Approaches and methods in language teaching (2nd Ed). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rosado, N., & Caro, K. G. (2018). The relationship between lexis and reading comprehension: A review. English Language Teaching, 11(11), 136-147.

Schelling, G., Aarnoutse, C., & Leeuwe, J. V. (2006). Third-grader's think aloud protocols: Types of reading activities in reading an expository text. Learning and Instruction, 16(6), 549-568.

Schmitt, N. (2008). Instructed second language vocabulary learning. Language Teaching Research, 12, 329-363.

Schmitt, N. (2014). Size and depth of vocabulary knowledge: What the research shows. Language Learning, 64(4), 913-951. doi:10.1111/lang.12077

Schmitt, N. & Carter, R. (2000). The lexical advantage of narrow for second language learners. TESOL Journal, 9(1), 4-9.

Sotoudehnama, E., & Zarmehri, M. (2020). The effect of “Narrow Reading” on learning mid-frequency vocabulary: The role of genre and author. Journal of Teaching Language Skills, 38(4), 165-203.

Tavanpour, N. & Biria, R. (2017). Impact of breadth and depth of lexical knowledge on Iranian advanced/intermediate EFL learners’ reading comprehension: The case of gender and proficiency. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research, 4(2), 150-168.

Urquhart, S., & Weir, C. (1998). Reading in a second language: process, product and practice. London: Longman

Waring, R., & Takaki, M. (2003). At what rate do learners learn and retain new vocabulary from reading a graded reader? Reading in a Foreign Language, 15, 130-163.

Wodinski, M., & Nation, P. (1988). Learning from graded readers. Reading in a Foreign Language, 5, 155-161.

Zhang, D., & Koda, K. (2017). Assessing L2 vocabulary depth with word associates format tests: Issues, findings, and suggestions. Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education, 2 (1), 1-30.

Zhang, X., & Lu, X. (2015). The Relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge. The Modern Language Journal, 99(4), 740-753. doi:10.1111/modl.12277


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research