A Critical Review of Autonomous Learning in L2 Research: From Theory to Practice

Davood Asadinik, Samad Mirza Suzani


The decline of method-based pedagogy with its overemphasis on teaching procedures rather than learning procedures led to the emergence of learner-centered approaches. Autonomous learners are those who are capable of taking care of their own learning through setting their learning objectives, managing the process of learning and evaluating their learning outcomes. The principles of autonomous learning, however, is more in line with individualistic ESL situations rather than collectivist EFL contexts. Therefore, in this study, our attempt is to provide the stakeholders, through a critical review of relevant studies, with a profound account of the tenets of autonomous learning to help them better notice the necessities of their  teaching  and learning environments.


autonomous learning, ESL/ EFL contexts, learner strategies, self-efficacy

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