An Investigation of Bilingualism

Sayana Movsum Baghirova


The present article deals with some facts about the investigation of bilingualism. It also studies the revealing of the forms and principles of occurrence of historical factors in the language and provides a short insight into the history and setting the problem. The attitude of an individual towards reality phenomena such as his/her way of clothing, his/her behavior, his/her way of speaking, etc. demonstrate the nation he/she represents. It is stated in the research that it is not difficult for human beings to be bilingual. Growing world can demonstrate itself by its people using two, three, or more languages.  The research also touches upon the fact that there exist many kinds and degrees of bilingualism and bilingual situations. The article highlights the cultural factors and their effects in bilingualism as well. The ways of defining common and distinguishing features of expressing the interrelation factors in multi-system languages are investigated in the research too. Accordingly, where many cultures meet, bilingualism may be observed there. The mutual influence of two languages may mostly be occurred in the communication process. The article states the importance of language diversity and to promote native language learning and bilingualism. The article also throws light upon the clarification of political issue of bilingualism through huge empires. The presence of bilingualism may sometimes be meant as threaten the existence of the old ones. 


language, bilingualism, interrelation, culture, speech, written, verbal, communication

Full Text:



Abdulrahimov, E. (2014). Linguistic pragmatics. Baku: Education Press.

Annick De H. (2012). The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics. Early Bilingualism. London: Cambridge University Press.

Annick De H.(1990) The Acquisition of Two Languages from Birth: A Case Study. London: Cambridge University Press.

Bhatia, T. K. and Ritchie, W.C. (2006). Introduction: The Handbook of Bilingualism. Great Britain: Blackwell Publishing.

Braunmüller, K. and Ferraresi, G. (2003). Introduction: Aspects of Multilingualism in European Language History. Great Britain: John Benjamins.

Baker, C. and Jones S. P. (1998). Encyclopedia of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education. Great Britain: Multilingual Matters.

Bialystok, E. (2001). Bilingualism in development: Language, literacy, and cognition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Boomfield L. (1935). Language. London: Allen and Unwin.

Crystal, D. (2011). A little book of language. Great Britain: Yale University Press.

Crystal D. (2006). How Language works. London: Penguin.

Carlos, E.C. (2013). Multicultural America: A Multimedia Encyclopedia. Four volume set. Emeritus, University of California, Riverside.

de Saussure, F. (1966). Course in General Linguistics, C.Bally and A.Sechehaye (eds). with A.Reidlinger, and W.Baskin (trans), London: McGraw Hill.

Dreifus, C. (2011). The bilingual advantage. Interview with Ellen Bialystok. The New York Times.

Fairclough, N. (1999). ‘Clobal capitalism and critical awareness of language,’ Language Awareness, 8 (2): pp.71-83.

Fromkin, V., and Rodman, R. (1993). An Introduction to Language. USA: Harcourt Brace College Publishers.

Gove P.B. (1961). Merriam-Webster 3rd New International Dictionary. London, G.Bell and Sons LTD.

Grosjean, F. (1985). The bilingual as a competent but specific speaker-hearer. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 6, pp.467-477. Also in Cruz-Ferreira, M. (Ed.). Multilingual Norms. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2010 (19-31).

Hamers , Josiane F & . Blanc Michel H. (2004). A Bilinguality and Bilingualism.London: Cambridge University Press.

Jessner, U. (2008). Teaching third languages: Findings, trends, and challenges. Université de Lausanne.

Kovàcs A.M., and Mehler J. (2009). Cognitive gains in 7-month-old bilingual infants. In the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(16):pp.6556-60•

Keysar B. , Hayakawa S. L. , An S.G. (2012). The Foreign-Language Effect Thinking in a Foreign Tongue Reduces Decision Biases. In Psychological Science XX(X). pp.1–8.

Kessler, C., and Quinn, M. E. (1980). Positive effects ofbilingualism on science problem-solving abilities. In J. E. Alatis, (Ed.), Current issues in bilingual education. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

Koshevaya, I.G. (2008). The course of English - Russian comparative typology. Text.: teaching guide (p. 54). Moscow: Visshaya Shkola.

Lambert, W.E. 1975 Culture and language as factors in learning and education. pp. 55-83 in A. Wolfgang, ed., Education of Immigrant Students. Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education.

Landry, R. and Allard, R. (1993). ‘Beyond socially naive bilingual education: the effects of schooling and ethnolinguistic vitality of the community on additive and subtractive bilingualism’, Annual Conference Journal (NABE ’90–’91): pp.1–30.

Meisel J.M. (1989). Early differentiation of languages in bilingual children. In Bilingualism across the Lifespan: Aspects of Acquisition, Maturity and Loss, K.Hyltenstam and L.K.Obler (eds), pp.13-40. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Mooney, A., Peccei, J.S., et al. (2011). Language, Society and Power. An Introduction. Great Britain: Routledge.

Mohanty, A. (1994). Bilingualism in a multilingual society: Implications for cultural integration and education. Keynote address, International Congress of Applied Psychology. Spain: Madrid.

Oxford English Dictionary.

Palmer, F.R. (1976). Semantics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Paradis, M. (Ed.). 1978. Aspects of Bilingualism, Columbia, SC.: Hornbeam Press, xv + 315 pp.

Páez, M., & Rinaldi, C. (2006). Predicting English word reading skills for Spanish-speaking students in first grade. Topics in Language Disorders, 26,pp.338–350.

Sapir, E. (1971). Language: An Introduction to the study of speech. Great Britain: London Ltd.

Spolky P. (1998). Sociolinguistics. England: Oxford University Press.

Trask R.L.(2007). Language and Linguistics. The Key Concepts. England: Routledge.

Veliyeva, M. (2014). Lexico-semantic features of Turkism in English. Baku: Azer.neshr.

Veysally F.Y. (2009). Selected works. Baku: Mutarjim.

Vinogradov, V.A. (1990). Interference (p.125). Moscow: Nauka.

Yespersen, O. (1923). Language: Its Nature, Development and Origin. Great Britain: George Allen and Unwin.

Zelasko, N., and Antunez, B. (2000). If your child learns in two languages. National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research